Through the instrumentality of observational methods scientists as wholesomely and as clearly as possible strive to examine and describe human behavior Shaughnessy, Saurab Advantages of Observational Methods: Reliability and bias continue to constitute a problem in cross-cultural research.
It is always better to supplement the observational record with the findings obtained through other methods. Hence, because the selection of elements is nonrandom, nonprobability sampling does not allow the estimation of sampling errors. The data obtained from structured observations is easier and quicker to analyze as it is quantitative i.
As a remedy, we seek a sampling frame which has the property that we can identify every single element and include any in our sample.
Note also that the population from which the sample is drawn may not be the same as the population about which we actually want information.
On the other hand, observation and sampling methods used in multicultural analysis is focused on a specific culture or society. In field experiment researchers as mainly employed by anthropologists or sociologists in natural setting aims at an observer manipulation of one or more independent variables IV to understand their impact on behavior.
This method is sometimes called PPS-sequential or monetary unit sampling in the case of audits or forensic sampling. For instance, a simple random sample of ten people from a given country will on average produce five men and five women, but any given trial is likely to overrepresent one sex and underrepresent the other.
This makes it difficult for another researcher to repeat the study in exactly the same way. Participants are randomly allocated to each independent variable group. Thus, the description may not reflect the true features of an event.
Crowd behavior, social behaviors of the animals, and mother-child interaction at home are some exemplary situations, which can be meaningfully assessed, and understood only through observation.
The implementation of time sampling in an inconsistent concept not only lead to missing the entire events but also losing sight of the essential part of the event, like the events beginning or end. Every element has a known nonzero probability of being sampled and involves random selection at some point.
Research methodology in psychology. This is done by treating each count within the size variable as a single sampling unit.
The experimental and other laboratory-based methods study behaviors under artificially controlled conditions. Finally, the presence of the observer may influence the phenomenon itself.
Random sampling involves assigning potential participants in a study to random numbers. Certain phenomena can be accessed and properly understood only through observation. SRS may also be cumbersome and tedious when sampling from an unusually large target population.
Poststratification Stratification is sometimes introduced after the sampling phase in a process called "poststratification". Participant observation is employed into major ways, which includes disguised, or undisguised. In cross-cultural research chances are that an observer may not effectively affect his or her observations with strong rapport and tryst between him or her and the culturally diverse people understudy.
Thus reducing the validity of their data. In general observations, are relatively cheap to carry out and few resources are needed by the researcher. Controlled observations are fairly quick to conduct which means that many observations can take place within a short amount of time.
This implies that in cross-cultural research a scientist should ensure that concepts or variables understudy has imilar meaning from one culture to another. Observation is one good source of hypothesizing individual behavior as such it is seen as the first step in the right direction to unravel why people behave the way they do.
The results obtained through any other scientific methods need to be in conformity with the outcomes of skilled observation.
First, identifying strata and implementing such an approach can increase the cost and complexity of sample selection, as well as leading to increased complexity of population estimates. SAMPLING METHODS AND RESEARCH DESIGNS Chapter 4 TOPIC SLIDE Types of Research 2 • Comparing HEAD start to traditional education methods.
TYPES OF RESEARCH Chapter 4 Results from observational studies may be easier to generalize to the population, but the results from true. Sir Davi Mbelu University of Phoenix Introduction In this paper attempt shall be made to compare multicultural and traditional psychology research methods with a view to examining observation and sampling as the variables of interest.
TRADITIONAL VERSUS MODERN METHODS OF EFFECTIVE TEACHING. Print Reference this. Published: 23rd March, and occurs through portfolios and observation (Brooks and Brooks, ). The sample was drawn randomly among the primary school students in Nigeria. Due to the limitation of time, only 20 participants were used for this study.
Free Essay: Sir Davi Mbelu University of Phoenix Introduction In this paper attempt shall be made to compare multicultural and traditional psychology. Sample Forms for Teaching Observation. Undergraduate and Graduate faith-based degree programs in Lisle, IL. Apply now!
Obeservational and Sampling in Traditional and Cultural Psychology Research Sir Davi Mbelu University of Phoenix Introduction In this paper attempt shall be made to compare multicultural and traditional psychology research methods with a view to examining observation and sampling as the variables of interest.Obeservational and sampling in traditional and